Marcel Duchamp’s Nude Descending a Staircase heralded the beginning of the Cubist movement when it was displayed at the 1913 Armory Show in New York City. One critic described it looking like a lumber yard after a tornado.
Cubism was an attempt to explore the Fourth Dimension aesthetically (and not coincidentally emerged around the same time as Einstein’s Theory of Relativity). In a wonderful essay over at The Smart Set, it’s explained:
[Duchamp] wasn’t trying to produce a scientific theory about dimensions. He was playing with scientific ideas and terminology to produce Romantic feelings.